Henry VII (1457-1509)
Elizabeth I (1533-1603)
Mary, Queen of Scots (1542 - 1587)
James VI and I (1566-1625)
John Knox (c. 1513 – 1572)
George Buchanan (1506-1582)
Charles I (1600 -1649)
'The Old Pretender' (1688-1766)
'Bonnie Prince Charlie' (1720 – 1788)
Charles I was born on 19th November 1600 at Dunfermline Palace in Fife. Charles' older brother Henry had been the heir to the throne until his death in 1612. He succeeded his father James VI in March 1625 and was crowned in February 1626 in Westminster Abbey and then in June 1633 at Holyrood Abbey.
From the beginning of his reign Charles was in conflict with the House of Commons in England, and with the Presbyterians in Scotland. In the latter country the greater part of his reign was dominated by the king's attempt to force Episcopacy on a reluctant nation; but, though the Scots were active in arms against the king in the matter of religion, they had certain sympathies with him on questions of politics. His forces finally defeated by the Parliamentary army in England, Charles sought a settlement with the Scots army in England. They, however, when they found he would not countenance their demands for a Presbyterian Church, withdrew their forces, and Charles became prisoner of the English parliament.
He was executed in 1649 outside Whitehall Palace in London. Britain was declared a republic by the victorious Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.
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