Henry VII (1457-1509)
Elizabeth I (1533-1603)
Mary, Queen of Scots (1542 - 1587)
James VI and I (1566-1625)
John Knox (c. 1513 – 1572)
George Buchanan (1506-1582)
Charles I (1600 -1649)
'The Old Pretender' (1688-1766)
'Bonnie Prince Charlie' (1720 – 1788)
A claimant to the British throne, Charles was the son of the Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart (1688 - 1766) and grandson of the deposed James II of England (1633 - 1701). He was born and raised in Rome.
After an abortive French expedition against England, Charles went to Scotland in 1745 in a bid to oust George II from the throne. He raised an army of followers among the clans and led an uprising known as the 'Forty-five'. Despite victories at Prestonpans and Falkirk and an advance into England, Charles failed to raise enough support from English Jacobites and was forced to retreat.
After a heavy defeat at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746, Charles went into hiding in the Highlands and then fled to France with the help of a laird's daughter, Flora MacDonald. Despite his renowned pretty looks, the Prince was, by all accounts, unconvincing as a woman.
Apart from two unsuccessful visits to England to win support for his cause, Charles spent the rest of his life in Europe. After his father's death in 1766 he returned to Italy, where he died on January 31st 1788.
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